External members

The Finnish Academy of Science and Letters may invite academics and scientists from abroad who have had outstanding research careers to be external members. The same strict criteria apply to their selection as to that of Finnish members.

Finnish Academy of Science and Letters has 163 external members (updated 23 April 2024)

External members


Achtenhagen, Frank, elected 1999, Dr. rer. pol., Professor of Economics and Business Education and Management Training, Director, University of Göttingen

Aleskerov, Fuad, elected 2021, D.Sc., Professor, Head of the Department of Mathematics for Economics, National Research University, National Research University

Allik, Jüri, elected 1997, PhD, Professor of experimental psychology, University of Tartu

Arter, David, elected 2001, PhD, Emeritus Professor of Politics, University of Aberdeen, Research Director (Political Science), University of Tampere

Asiegbu, Fred Obioma, elected 2017, PhD, Professor of Forest Pathology, University of Helsinki


Bengtsson, Olof Lennart, elected 1998, Dr., Professor emer. of Geophysics, Max Planck Institute for Meteorology

Bertinetto, Pier Marco, elected 2006, Full Professor of General Linguistics, Scuola Normale Superiore of Pisa

Birmelé, Marc André, elected 2000, Doctorat en Sciences religieuses, Doctorat J‘Etat en théologie, Professor of Dogmatic Theology, University of Strasbourg

Bova, George Steven, elected 2018, M.D., Professor, personalized cancer medicine, Tampere University

Bradley, Raymond Stuart, elected 2008, Distinguished Professor, University of Massachusetts

Brickmont, Jean Louis Joseph, elected 2013, PhD, Professor emeritus, Universite Catholique de Louvain la Neuve

Buchwald, Vagn Fabritius, elected 1994, D.Sc., Docent, retired, Technical University of Denmark

Bünzli, Jean-Claude G., elected 1998, Dr.-Ing. Chem., Professor of Chemistry, ETH Lausanne

Bäckvall, Jan-Erling, elected 1996, Tekn.Dr., Professor of Organic Chemistry, Stockholm University


Carleson, Lennart Axel Edvard, elected 1970, PhD, Professor emer., Royal Institute of Technology

de Castro, Ivo Jose, elected 1996, Professor de História da Língua Portuguesa, University of Lisbon

Chaniotis, Angelos, elected 2009, Dr., Professor of Ancient History and Classics, Princeton University

Cheeger, Jeff, elected 1998, Professor of Mathematics, New York University

Clark, Peter Alan, elected 2006, PhD, Professor of European Urban History, University of Helsinki

Crone, Elizabeth Ellen, elected 2017, PhD, Professor of population ecology and dynamics, Tufts University


Deppermann, Arnulf, elected 2018, Professor Dr., Professor of German Linguistics, University of Mannheim

Diamond, Jared Mason, elected 2000, PhD, Professor of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles

Dobaczewski, Jacek Jan, elected 2015, Professor, University of Jyväskylä, University of York

DuBois, Thomas, elected 2016, PhD, Halls-Bascom Professor of Scandinavian Studies, Folklore, and Religious Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Duchhardt, Heinz, elected 2003, Professor Dr., Director, Leibniz Institute of European History

Dunbar, Robin Ian MacDonald, elected 2021, MA, PhD, DSc (Hons), Professor emer. of evolutionary psychology, University of Oxford


Eck, Werner, elected 1998, Professor ordinarius for Ancient History, University of Cologne

Eldridge, Richard, elected 2010, PhD, Charles and Harriett Cox McDowell Professor of Philosophy, Swarthmore College

Enflo, Kerstin Sofia, elected 2021, Professor of economic history, Lund University

Engwall, Gunnel Birgitta, elected 2014, fil.dr., Professor, Stockholm University

Engwall, Lars Otto Victor, elected 1998, fil.dr., Professor emer. of business administration, Uppsala University

Enss, Christian Walter Dietrich, elected 2016, Dr., Full Professor, Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics, Heidelberg University

Eriksson, Ove Jörgen, elected 2014, Professor, Stockholm University


Gaddis, John Lewis, elected 1985, PhD, Robert A. Lovett Professor of History, Yale University

Galdia, Marcus, elected 2017, Dr.phil., Dr.iur., Associate Professor of Law, International University of Monaco

Gerber, Robert Benny, elected 2007, D.Ph., Saerree K. and Louis P. Fiedler Professor of Chemistry, Hebrew University, Professor of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine

Giron Alconchel, José-Luis, elected 1997, Doctor en Filologia Hispánica, Catedrático de Historia de la Lengua Española, Complutense University of Madrid

Granberg, Hardy B., elected 1998, PhD, Professeur agrégé, Univeristé de Sherbrooke

Greenlees, Paul Thomas, elected 2018, Ph D, Professor of Physics, University of Jyväskylä

Groten, Erwin, elected 1997, Dr.-Ing., Professor, retired Director, Darmstadt University of Technology


Hambraeus, Leif Magnus, elected 1997, Med.Dr., Professor emer., Uppsala University

Heide, Ola Mikal, elected 1995, Dr. agric., Professor emer. of Botany, Norwegian University of Life Sciences

Heikkilä, Walter J., elected 1977, Professor emer. of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas

Helenius, Ari, elected 2003, PhD, Professor of Biochemistry, ETH Zürich

Hinkkanen, Aimo Heikki Juhani, elected 2005, PhD, Professor of Mathematics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Holler, Manfred, elected 2022, Professor of economics, University of Hamburg, University of Hamburg

Holly, Michael Ann, elected 2011, PhD, Starr Director of Research and Academic Program, Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute

Holmström, Bengt Robert, elected 2007, PhD, Paul A. Samuelson Professor of Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT

Holsti, Kalevi J., elected 2005, Professor emer. of Political Science, University of British Columbia

Hroch, Miroslav, elected 1996, PhD h.c., PhD, Dr. Sc., emer. University Professor of History, Charles University Prague

Hugdahl, Kenneth, elected 2002, PhD, Professor, University of Bergen

Hutcheon, Linda, elected 2010, PhD, Professor emer. of English and Comparative Literature, University of Toronto

Hånell, Björn Olof, elected 2014, Dr., Professor, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

Häyry, Matti, elected 2005, Dr. Soc. Sci., Professor of Philosophy of Management, Aalto University

Hökfelt, Tomas Gustav Magnus, elected 2018, PhD, Senior Professor, Karolinska Institutet

Hösch, Edgar Johann, elected 1996, Dr. phil., Professor emer., Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich


Imahori, Hiroshi, elected 2018, Professor, Kyoto University

Iwaniec, Tadeusz, elected 2012, PhD, FiDiPro Professor, University of Helsinki, John Raymond French Professor of Mathematics, Syracuse University


Jacobs, Howard Trevor Howy, elected 2002, PhD, Professor of Molecular Biology, Tampere University

Jauho, Antti-Pekka, elected 2003, Professor of Theoretical Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark

Jeltsch, Rolf, elected 2002, Dr., Full Professor, ETH Zürich

Johannessen, Ola M., elected 1997, Professor, Director, Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, University of Bergen

Johansen, Hans-Christian, elected 1997, Dr. Oecon, Professor emer. of Economic and Social History, University of Southern Denmark

Johansson, Bror Henning, elected 1998, PhD, Professor emer. of Education, Jönköping University

Jonson, Mats Sigvard, elected 2013, PhD, Professor of Physics, University of Gothenburg

Jänne, Pasi A., elected 2016, Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School

Jänterä-Jareborg, Maarit, elected 2008, Jur. dr., Professor of Private International Law and International Civil Procedure, Uppsala University

Jäättelä, Marja Helena, elected 2016, MD, PhD, Head of Research Unit, Danish Cancer Society Research Center


Kanninen, Markku Tapani, elected 2004, Ph. Sci. Agric. For., Professor of Tropical Silviculture, University of Helsinki

Kasimov, Nikolay, elected 2021, Dean/President, Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University

Kenttämaa, Hilkka Inkeri, elected 2004, Professor of Organic and Analytical Chemistry, Purdue University

Kertész, János, elected 2021, Dr. rer. nat., D.Sc., Professor, Head of Department of Network and Data Science, Central European University, Central European University

Klabbers, Johannes Antonius Maria (Jan), elected 2014, Dr., Academy Professor (Martti Ahtisaari Chair), Professor of International Law, University of Helsinki

Klingemann, Hans-Dieter Albert Robert, elected 1999, Dr. rer. pol., Professor emer. of Political Science, Free University of Berlin

Knott, Kim, elected 2016, PhD, Professor of Religious and Secular Studies, Lancaster University

Kolaitis, Phokion Gerasimos, elected 2007, PhD, Professor of Computer Science, University of California, Santa Cruz

Kolstad, Nils Kristoffer, elected 1998, Dr. agric., Professor emer. of Agriculture, Agricultural University of Norway

Krajcik, Joseph, elected 2021, Professor, Michigan State University

Krosby, Hans Peter, elected 1978, PhD, Professor of History, State University of New York at Albany

Kuich, Werner, elected 1988, Dr. phil., Dr. h.c., Professor of Mathematics and Theoretical Informatics, Vienna University of Technology

Kusch, Martin Paul Heinrich, elected 2008, Dr., Applied Philosophy of Science and Epistemology, University of Vienna

Kuznetsov, Nikolay, elected 2020, Dr. Sci., Professor and Head of the Department of Applied Cybernetics, Saint-Petersburg State University; Head of the Laboratory of information and control systems, Russian Academy of Science

Kytö, Merja-Maija, elected 2016, Professor of English language, Uppsala University


Landsberg, Joseph John Joe, elected 1999, B.Sc, PhD, Adjunct Professor, Charles Sturt University (New South Wales), Professor emer., The University of Queensland

Lang, Valter, elected 2017, PhD, Professor of Archaeology, University of Tartu and University of Turku

Lepore, Ernest, elected 2014, PhD, Professor of Philosophy, Rutgers University, Center for Cognitive Science

Levin, Christoph, elected 2014, Dr. theol., Professor of Old Testament Studies, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich

Ley, Steven Victor, elected 2007, PhD, Professor of Chemistry, University of Cambridge

Lloyd, Alan Christopher, elected 2016, PhD, Emer. Professor, University of New England

Löfstedt, Leena, elected 1995, former Professor of Romance Philology, University of Jyväskylä


Marchello-Nizia, Christiane Marie, elected 2002, Docteur d’ Etat, Professor emer., École normale supérieure de Lyon

Martin, Gaven John, elected 2016, PhD, Distinguished Professor of Mathematics, Massey University

Maurer, Hermann, elected 1996, Dr., Professor emer., Graz University of Technology

McLerran, Larry, elected 2000, Senior Scientist, Brookhaven National Laboratory

McMahon, April Mary Scott, elected 2008, PhD, Vice-President for Teaching, Learning and Students, University of Manchester

Mieder, Wolfgang, elected 1996, Dr., Professor of German and Folklore, University of Vermont

Mitra, Sanjit Kumar, elected 2013, PhD, Research Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara

Moen, Asbjörn, elected 2006, D.Phil., Professor in Vegetation Ecology and Conservation Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology

Mondada, Lorenza, elected 2017, Professor Dr. Dr. h.c., Full Professor of general linguistics and French linguistics, University of Basel

Moore, John C., elected 2016, Professor, Beijing Normal University and University of Lapland

Morrill, John Stephen, elected 2002, D.Phil., D.Litt., F.B.A, Professor of British and Irish History, University of Cambridge

Motohashi, Yoichi, elected 1999, PhD, PhD h.c. (University of Turku), Professor of Mathematics, Nihon University

Muglia, Louis Joseph, elected 2020, MD, PhD, President and CEO, Burroughs Wellcome Fund, Adj. Professor of pediatrics, University of Cincinnati, Burroughs Wellcome Fund, University of Cincinnati


Nakajima, Hiroshi, elected 1984, Ed. D. (Hon.), Professor emer. of Education, Waseda University

Nembach, Ulrich Reinhard, elected 1997, Dr. theol., Dr. iur., Professor emer., University of Göttingen

Niemann, Hermann Michael, elected 2000, Dr. theol.habil., Professor of Old Testament Studies and Biblical Archaeology, Rostock University

Niemi, Richard Gene, elected 2002, PhD, Don Alonzo Watson Professor of Political Science, University of Rochester

Nilsson, Lars-Göran, elected 1993, Professor of Psychology, Stockholm University

Norris, Margot, elected 2008, PhD, Chancellor’s Professor of English and Comparative Literature, University of California, Irvine

Nurmikko, Arto Veikko, elected 2010, PhD, Herbert Ballou University Professor of Engineering and Physics, Brown University


Olesen, Jens Ejnar, elected 2003, Dr. phil., Professor of Nordic History, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Greifswald

Onnela, Jukka–Pekka, elected 2024, Professor, Harvard University

Opgenoorth, Hermann Josef, elected 1997, Professor, Swedish Institute of Space Physics

Ott, Hans Rudolf, elected 2005, Professor of Physics, ETH Zürich

Ottersen, Ole Petter, elected 2017, MD, PhD, Professor, Rector, Karolinska Institute


Pickett, George Richard, elected 1998, D.Phil., Professor of Low Temperature Physics, Lancaster University

Pulkkinen, Antti, elected 2022, Director of the Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center


Rajantie, Arttu, elected 2024, Professor, Imperial College London

Reedijk, Jan, elected 1997, Professor of Chemistry, Leiden Institute of Chemistry

Reimann, Hans-Martin, elected 1994, Professor emer. of Mathematics, University of Bern

Rieger, Bernhard, elected 2008, Dr., WACKER-Chair of Macromolecular Chemistry, Director of Institute of Silicon Chemistry, Technical University of Munich

Risku, Hanna Maria, elected 2016, Dr., University Professor, Department of Translation Studies, University of Vienna

Robinson, Douglas Jack, elected 2020, PhD, Professor of translating and interpreting, Chinese University of Hong Kong

Rojas, Orlando, elected 2017, PhD, Professor of Biobased Materials, Aalto University

Romaine, Suzanne, elected 2010, PhD, Merton Professor emer. of English Language, University of Oxford

Rose, Richard, elected 1985, D.Phil., FBA, Director, Centre for the Study of Public Policy, Professor of Politics, University of Strathclyde

Rozenberg, Grzegorz, elected 1984, Professor of Computer Science, Leiden University

Ruud, Kenneth, elected 2014, Dr. Philos., Professor, University of Tromsø – The Arctic University of Norway


Saari, Donald Gene, elected 2009, PhD, Distinguished Professor of Mathematics and Economics, University of California, Irvine

Saarma, Mart, elected 2000, PhD, Director, Finnish Centre of Excellence in Molecular and Integrative Neuroscience, Professor, University of Helsinki

Salomaa, Kai Tapani, elected 2017, PhD, Full Professor, Queen’s University

Sanaev, Victor Georgievich, elected 2013, Dr. Sc. (Tech.), Rector, Moscow State Forest University

Sannino, Francesco, elected 2015, PhD, Director, Professor, University of Southern Denmark

Satz, Helmut, elected 1994, Dr. rer. nat., Professor emer. of Physics, University of Bielefeld

Schneider, Barbara, elected 2017, PhD, John A. Hannah University Distunguished Professor, Michigan State University

Schulze, Winfried, elected 2000, Dr. phil., Professor emer., Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich

Schwerdtfeger, Peter, elected 2022, Professor of theoretical chemistry, Massey University, Massey University

Scott, Dana Stewart, elected 1976, PhD, Professor emer. of Computer Science, Mathematical Logic and Philosophy, Carnagie Mellon University

Shallit, Jeffrey Outlaw, elected 2020, PhD, Professor, School of Computer Science, University of Waterloo

Shanmugalingam, Nageswari, elected 2021, PhD, Professor of mathematics, University of Cincinnati, University of Cincinnati

Sixta, Herbert, elected 2022, Professor of forest products technology, Aalto University, Aalto University

Smend, Rudolf, elected 1994, Professor of Biblical Exegetics, University of Göttingen

Smith, Carsten, elected 1985, Dr. jur., former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Norway

Spence, John Richard, elected 2003, Professor of Insect Ecology, University of Alberta

von Staden, Heinrich, elected 2005, Professor of Classics and History of Science, Princeton University

Strömholm, Stig Fredrik, elected 1980, Jur. Dr., Dr. jur., Professor emer. of Private and Private International Law, Rector emer., Uppsala University

Stump, Eleonore, elected 1999, PhD, Robert J. Henle Professor of Philosophy, Saint Louis University

Svensson, Lars Erik Oskar, elected 1998, PhD, Professor of economics, Stockholm School of Economics


Takala, Irina, elected 2018, PhD, Professor, Petrozavodsk State University

Terhart, Ewald, elected 2004, Professor Dr. phil., Professor für Schulpädagogik und Allgemeine Didaktik, University of Münster

Tiedemann, Jörg, elected 2019, Professor of language technology, University of Helsinki

Troe, Hans Jürgen, elected 2012, Professor Dr. Dr.h.c.mult., Professor emer. and Niedersachsen Professor of Physical Chemistry, University of Göttingen, retired Director at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry


V / W

Wadhams, Peter, elected 2006, Professor of Ocean Physics, Head of the Polar Ocean Physics Group, University of Cambridge

Weiner, Bernard, elected 2001, Dr., Distinguished Professor of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles

Welker, Michael Armin, elected 2008, Dr. theol., Dr. phil., Professor of Systematic Theology and Director of the Research Center for International and Interdisciplinary Theology, University of Heidelberg

Vermeer, Martinus (Martin), elected 1993, PhD, Professor of Geodesy, Aalto University

Vilonen, Kari Kaleva, elected 2004, PhD, Professor of Mathematics, University of Melbourne

Wingfield, Michael J., elected 2016, Director, Professor, University of Pretoria

Volkov, Mikhail, elected 2017, D.Sc., Head of the Chair of Algebra and Theoretical Computer Science, Ural Federal University

Volovik, Grigory E., elected 2001, Dr., Visiting Professor, Aalto University


Ziolkowski, Jan Michael, elected 2020, Arthur Kingsley Porter Professor of Medieval Latin, Harvard University


Öhrn, Nils Yngve, elected 1982, PhD, Professor emer. of Chemistry and Physics, University of Florida

Österberg, Eva, elected 1993, Professor emer. of History, University of Lund